The vertical reciprocating compressors cover an area of the lower capacity (lower than horizontal reciprocating compressors). They are the optimal solution for low space locations and requirements. Vertical compressors can be configured as a single- to multi cylinder design.
Flow Control Of Reciprocating Compressors
Valve Unloading – Stepped
Cylinder suction valves are held fully open in some cylinders. This prevents flow in those cylinders. Typically used to reduce flow in one step to 50%.
Simple control system, low cost. On/off control.
Cylinder Volume Pockets
A valve is used to connect a cylinder head to a “dead volume” this reduces “volumetric efficiency” and hence compressor flow. Flow reduction is typically 20%. On/Off control
Valve Unloading - Stepless (eg Hoerbiger “Hydrocom”)
Sophisticated control that holds Cylinder suction valves open for part of each cycle.
Enables smooth flow control from 100% to around 25% flow
Recycle flow control
Allows full flow control but has poorest energy efficiency
Design of the suction and discharge valves is one of the die more important considerations in the design of the compressor due to its design considerably influences the volume compression and efficiency. Let's remind, that the characteristics of flow and friction losses, generating steam, as it flows drought valves of the compressor and passages, first of all, depends on its speed. As vapor speed through the valves increases, volumetric compression and lower efficiency. Therefore, the valve ports are designed to be as large as possible within an area equal to the cylinder. Big wells permission to use larger size ports. Valves are manufactured with the use of low-weight materials and have a short lift so that they quickly open their maximum flow position. They are also short, straight path thread to reduce friction losses incurred in liquids abruptly change their direction. Valves are designed to minimize the volume needed gap in the cylinder, close tightly, low cost and durable. To facilitate the rapid closing of the valve, the majority of the exhaust valves and some suction valves spring.
All of these design features work in the direction of maximum die operating efficiency of the compressor.
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