Butt-Welding Fitting

Petrosadid: Butt-Welding Fitting

Butt-weld fittings or wrought fittings are the most common type of steel fittings used for pipelines mostly above 4 inches in diameter. Pipe fittings change the pathway of the pipeline (elbows with 45, 90 and 180 degrees angle curve), reduce/increase its flow conveyance capacity (concentric and eccentric reducers), branch (tees, cross) or blind it (butt weld cap). These fittings are supplied with ends chamfered for connection to pipe by means of butt welding.

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LR, SR, Reducing and Mitered

Among all of the fittings, elbow is the one most often used.

Elbow is used when a pipe changes direction, they can turn up, turn down, turn left, right, or any angle in between.

Elbows can be classified as one of the following:

• 90° Elbow

• 45° Elbow

• 180° Return

• Reducing Elbow

• Mitered Elbow

Straight, Reducing, Cross

The name of this fitting comes from its resemblance to the letter T.

It is a three-way fitting used to make perpendicular connections to a pipe

Two types of tees are used in the piping industry:

• Straight: all three outlets are the same pipe size.

• Reducing: branch outlet is a smaller pipe size.

Concentric, Eccentric

When the piping designer wants to reduce the diameter of a straight run of pipe, a reducing fitting must be used.

Two types of Reducers are used in the piping industry:

• Concentric: having a common centerline.

• Eccentric: having offset centerlines.

For Low-pressure applications

It is a type of Tee which has the branch at a 45° angle, or an angle other than 90°. Lateral allows one pipe to be joined to another at a 45° angle. This type of tee reduces friction and turbulence that could hamper the flow. Lateral is also known as a Wye tee.

To block off the end of a line

Pipe caps are used to block off the end of a line by welding it to the pipe.

Caps should never be stored in a position to trap rain water or sand.

Lap Joint Stub-End
It is mated with a lap joint flange

The stub end is used in lines requiring quick disconnection.

The lap forms a gasket surface that replaces the gasket surface of a flange, and are mated with a lap joint flange. Stub ends should not be confused with stub-ins, the latter being one pipe stubbed into another pipe and welded.


Highlights of the Butt-Welding Fittings


ASTM A403 WP (Gr. 304, 304H, 304L, 309, 310, 316, 316L, 317L, 321, 347, 904L)

ASTM A420 WPL3 , A420 WPL6

ASTM A234 WPB , WPBW, WPHY 42, WPHY 46, WPHY 52, WPH 60, WPHY 65 and WPHY 70

ASTM A234 (Gr. WP1, WP5, WP9, WP11, WP12, WP22, WP91)

ASTM A860 (WPHY 42 - WPHY 46 - WPHY 52 - WPHY 56 - WPHY 60 - WPHY 65 - WPHY 70 - WPHY 80 only as per MSS-SP75)

ASTM A815 (UNS S31803, S32205, S32760, S32750)

ASTM A815 (UNS S31803, S32205, S32760, S32750)


ASME B16.9, ASME B16.28 and, MSS SP43 are the key specifications covering the dimensions and the manufacturing tolerances of butt weld fittings. ASME B16.25 covers the preparation of butt weld connections between pipes and fittings and ASME B16.49 covers the marking details.

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